Wojciech Gawlik, Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Color centers in diamond
Color centers in diamonds become a very attractive alternative to atoms and molecules as novel photonic materials. Thanks to their physical properties (resistance to mechanical and electromagnetic perturbations, excellent biocompatibility and paramagnetism) they enable many attractive applications in photonics, metrology and quantum information, as well as in biology and medicine. In my talk I will present research conducted at the Jagiellonian University with the NV color centers in diamonds (bulk monocrystals and nanodiamonds). I will particularly focus on the applications we develop in sensorics and magnetometry.
Maciej Wojtkowski, Instytut Chemii Fizycznej PAN
Spatio-Temporal Optical Coherence Imaging – new tool for in vivo microscopy
Spatiotemporal optical coherence (STOC) imaging has been recently introduced by our group. STOC is a new technique for suppressing coherent crosstalk noise in Fourier-domain full-field optical coherence tomography (FD-FF-OCT). In STOC imaging, the time-varying inhomogeneous phase masks modulate the incident light to alter the interferometric signal. Resulting interference images are then processed as in standard FD-FF-OCT and averaged incoherently or coherently to produce crosstalk-free volumetric OCT images of the sample. Coherent averaging is only possible when phase modulation is performed for both interferometer arms simultaneously once the incoherent averaging can be performed sequentially with phase modulation performed in one interferometric arm only. The modulated signal, after coherent averaging, preserves lateral phase stability. This important feature enables digital aberration correction (DAC) to compensate for geometrical aberrations. Ultimately, we image the photoreceptor layer of the human retina in vivo to reveal otherwise invisible photoreceptor cones structure.
Przedstawiciele Partnerów i instytucji współpracujących:
Marcin Bober, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika
Progress in optical atomic clocks at KL FAMO, UMK
We present an overview of the work done with the optical atomic clocks system at KL FAMO (UMK) during the last year. We report fundamental physics studies made with two existing optical strontium lattice clocks (POZA). A next generation system of a continuous active optical atomic clock is under development. The clock will be based on superradiance phenomena in the blue-detuned magic wavelength lattice (390 nm). In December 2018 and in June/July 2019 with our foreign partners we have performed first two intercontinental observation sessions aimed at dark matter detection. Five Sr optical clocks, two located at LNE-SYRTE Paris, France, one at NICT, Tokyo, Japan, and two at KL FAMO, Toruń, Poland participated in the first session. In the second session participated three more clocks, Yb clock located at NIST, Boulder, CO, USA, and Yb+ and Sr clocks at NPL, UK.
Piotr Kolenderski, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika
Single photons for micro and macro applications
There is a wide range of applications where methods of single photon generation, control and detection are useful. Quantum communication benefits from the possibility to generate single wave packets and entanglement. Here a photon is an information carrier and the security is guaranteed by the lows of quantum mechanics. Photons can be transmitted over long distances in fibers and also in free space satellite links. Quantum microscopy is another application, where the ability to use photons opens up new perspectives. It has been recently shown that a single photon prepared in a Fock state can interact with a single color center in diamond. During my talk I will present the main results, goals and research areas which are of interest at Single Photon Applications Laboratory.
Przemysław Krehlik, Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza
Optical fibers in time and frequency transfer
In the presentation we give the general introduction to the techniques of transferring ultrastable frequency references and timescales using of optical fibers. We discuss the limitations related to fundamental physical phenomena occurring in the fibers and to technical realizations of time and frequency transfer systems. Various ideas how to mitigate the phase noise introduced by the fiber will be described. We will also briefly present the current development and investigations in the field of optical time and frequency transfer in Poland and Europe.
Radek Łapkiewicz, Uniwersytet Warszawski
What can photon pair detection do for super-resolution microscopy and phase imaging?
Quantum imaging typically requires the preparation of fragile states of light with which the sample is illuminated. An entirely different scheme, in which the sample itself “prepares” the quantum state required for imaging, was proposed and demonstrated by Schwartz and colleagues [1, 2]. Their quantum correlation microscopy method relies on photon antibunching and allows improving the resolution by the factor of sqrt(2), beyond the diffraction limit. This is achieved by replacing the standard intensity measurement with the measurement of the number of photon pairs which are missing due to photon antibunching. In general, n-th order order correlations, provide the resolution improvement by the factor of sqrt(n). Interestingly, most of the fluorophores used in microscopy exhibit photon antibunching andMarcin , as a consequence, can be used in quantum correlation microscopy. Recently, this method has been combined with image scanning microscopy, a super-resolution microscopy technique, and used to obtain super-resolved images of a biological sample .
We will introduce the basics of quantum correlation microscopy and discuss its implementations. The second part of the talk will be devoted to interferometric phase imaging enabled by photon correlation measurements.
Interferometric methods are essential for making precise measurements and typically require high coherence between the measured and the reference beam. When the phase offset between the two beams changes randomly, the interferogram averages out, erasing all the spatial phase information. We will show that, even when the lowest order interference fringes cannot be observed, spatial phase of a beam can be measured. This can be achieved by spatially resolved photon counting and the analysis of a photon pair detection probability distribution .These results demonstrate that information contained in photon correlations enables phase imaging in conditions in which traditional methods fail.
- O. Schwartz, D. Oron, Improved resolution in fluorescence microscopy using quantum correlations, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033812 (2012)
- O. Schwartz et al. Superresolution microscopy with quantum emitters, Nano Lett. 13, 5832–5836 (2013).
- R. Tenne, et al., Super-resolution enhancement by quantum image scanning microscopy, Nat. Phot., 13, 116–122 (2019).
- J. Szuniewicz et al., Noise Resistant Phase Imaging with Intensity Correlation, Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics (2019).
Erwin Maciak, Politechnika Ślaska
Photonic sensing structures based on functional materials for applications in physical-chemical sensors
In this report we present the review of recent theoretical and experimental research conducted in the Department of Optoelectronics Silesian University of Technology. This work presents an investigation of photonic and microelectronic structures based on the innovative functional materials, namely on the materials, which are characterized by the order chemooptics parameters, physicochemical properties, and electronic properties. All these materials are very attractive for practical applications because it is possible to govern of their optical an electrical properties with the presence of a specific chemical analytes or physical factors. The investigations of functional receptors in photonic and microelectronic sensing structures, as an active part of these structures, including materials:
- chemo(gaso)chromic semiconductive transition metal oxides (TMO);
- block copolymers (synthetic and natural) grafted with side functional groups;
- semiconducting metal free phtalocyanines (Pc) and metal phtalocyanines (MPc);
- metal oxides nanomaterials with optical activation.
The second scientific subject of the reported investigation is the design, fabrication, characterization, and study the properties of sensing structures for applications in fiber optic, optoelectronic and microelectronic gas sensors. The development and implementation of dedicated and effective configurations of opto- and microelectronic measuring transducers is complex, especially because obtaining a sensor structure is a multi-stage process, which consists of the cooperation of many specialists with various skills. The process begins with the selection of the material for (effective) sorption of the analyte, proceeds through controlled modifications of the receptor supported by the characterization of its properties and culminates in obtaining an efficient and effective transducer configuration. Important issue here is the investigation of sensing mechanisms based on spectroscopic analysis of the reactions between novel sensing materials and analytes in situ.
Paweł Mergo, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej
Technologies of selected classic and microstructured optical fibers from silica glass and high silica glasses
Although technology of optical fibers has been known since the beginning of the seventies of the last century, we still observe its significant development in both research and production areas. In the last years, we observe particularly significant development in the technologies of microstructured optical fibers for which a number of interesting properties, not available for classic optical fibers, have been obtained. In recent years, a number of new methods of producing special high silica glasses have also been developed. The paper presents the technology of several classic and microstructured optical fibers made of silica glass and high silica glasses. In particular, the technology of classic and microstructured helically twisted optical fibers, fibers for distributed sensors and new technologies for the fabrication of active glasses are presented.
Bernard Piechal, Instytut Chemii Fizycznej PAN
Pulse Multiplicaton in Mamyshev Oscillator
Mamyshev oscillator scheme is studied widely in the last years as possible fiber oscillator scheme for high-energy pulsed source. We show that instead of scaling up the pulse energy it is possible to scale up the repetition rate of the emmited pulse train. Our newly developped all-PM fiber Mamyshev oscillator exhibit harmonic mode-locking phonomenon. It emits about 2 nJ pulses with the repetition rate tunable from 16 to 229 MHz by means of the pump power changes. For high repetition rate operation supermode suppression level of about 70 dB is reported.
Grzegorz Soboń, Politechnika Wrocławska
Compact optical frequency combs in the near and mid-infrared
Optical frequency combs emerge as ideal sources for molecular spectroscopy, due to their high brightness, broad spectral coverage, wavelength-tunability and compatibility with enhancement cavities. Detection of most molecules requires a source which covers the mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral region, where the strongest fundamental vibrational transitions are present. The development of robust and field-deployable gas detection platforms relies on the development of compact, environmentally stable laser sources. The presentation will cover the recent achievements of our Group in the area of fiber-based frequency combs in the near- and mid-infrared spectral bands, e.g.: a simple Er-doped fiber-based frequency comb with thermal stabilization and widely tunable repetition rate, a robust and compact fiber-based mid-infrared (6500-9000 nm) comb based on difference frequency generation (DFG) principle (shown in Fig. 1). Applicability of both lasers in frequency comb spectroscopy will be also presented: application the Er-doped near-infrared comb to cavity-enhanced Vernier spectroscopy for detection of carbon dioxide (CO2), and application of the mid-infrared DFG comb to Fourier-transform spectroscopy for detection of nitrous oxide (N2O).
Tomasz Stefaniuk, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Photonic nanostructures in basic and applied research
The development of photonic nanostructures have provided a unique way to manipulate and confine light on the nanometer scale. The ongoing research not only allowed for miniaturization of standard optical devices but also opened an avenue for exploring new physical phenomena and functionalities, otherwise unknown in bulk optical media. During the presentation we will briefly discuss major concepts which underpin the progress in nanophotonics, and on the basis of work carried out at the Information Optics Department, we will present the current research directions. In particular, we will cover such topics as enhancement of performance of solar energy harvesting devices, development of all-optical switches, superresolving imaging, bio- and chemical- sensing and novel functional metamaterials.
Karol Tarnowski, Politechnika Wrocławska
All-normal dispersion generation of a linearly polarized supercontinuum in an all-fiber system
In recent years, numerous microstructured fibers were designed and fabricated bringing a significant progress in a quality of generated supercontinuum spectra. In particular, it was shown that normal dispersion fibers are suitable for generation of coherent supercontinuum. Initially, the mid-infrared range of all-normal dispersion supercontinuum in silica fibers was limited to 1.5 μm, since a difficulty in shifting the maximum of normal dispersion in such fibers beyond 1.3 μm. We addressed this issue, by designing and fabricating [1,2] germanium-doped microstructured fibers and succeeded to generate the all-normal dispersion supercontinuum in silica fibers up to 2.5 μm . Finally, we were able to connect the developed fiber with the ultra-simple, fully fiberized, polarization maintaining fiber laser system generating 26-fs pulses at 1.55 μm with average output power of 145 mW and 45 MHz repetition rate. As a result we obtained the fully fiberized all-normal dispersion coherent polarized supercontinuum source, which is robust and guarantees a turn-key stable operation .
- K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, All-Normal Dispersion Hole-Assisted Silica Fibers for Generation of Supercontinuum Reaching Midinfrared, IEEE Photonics Journal, 8, 1-11 (2016).
- K. Tarnowski, T. Martynkien, P. Mergo, K. Poturaj, G. Soboń, W. Urbańczyk, Coherent supercontinuum generation up to 2.2 µm in an all-normal dispersion microstructured silica fiber, Optics Express, 24, 30523-30536 (2016).
- K. Tarnowski, T. Martynkien, P. Mergo, K. Poturaj, A. Anuszkiewicz, P. Béjot, F. Billard, O. Faucher, B. Kibler, W. Urbanczyk, Polarized all-normal dispersion supercontinuum reaching 2.5 µm generated in a birefringent microstructured silica fiber, Optics Express, 25, 27452-27463 (2017).
- K. Tarnowski, T. Martynkien, P. Mergo, J. Sotor, G. Soboń, Compact all-fiber source of coherent linearly polarized octave-spanning supercontinuum based on normal dispersion silica fiber, Scientific Reports, 9, 12313 (2019)